Monthly Archives: Maret 2009

Pyramid Schemes


In the classic “pyramid” scheme, participants attempt to make money solely by recruiting new participants into the program. The hallmark of these schemes is the promise of sky-high returns in a short period of time for doing nothing other than handing over your money and getting others to do the same.

The fraudsters behind a pyramid scheme may go to great lengths to make the program look like a legitimate multi-level marketing program. But despite their claims to have legitimate products or services to sell, these fraudsters simply use money coming in from new recruits to pay off early stage investors. But eventually the pyramid will collapse. At some point the schemes get too big, the promoter cannot raise enough money from new investors to pay earlier investors, and many people lose their money. The chart below shows how pyramid schemes can become impossible to sustain:

For more information about pyramid schemes and fraudulent multi-level marketing programs, please visit the Federal Trade Commission’s website and read their brochures entitled Lotions and Potions: The Bottom Line About Multilevel Marketing Plans, Multi-Level Marketing Plans, and Profits in Pyramid Schemes? Don’t Bank on It!.

http://www.sec.gov/answers/pyramid.htm

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“Ponzi” Schemes


Ponzi schemes are a type of illegal pyramid scheme named for Charles Ponzi, who duped thousands of New England residents into investing in a postage stamp speculation scheme back in the 1920s. Ponzi thought he could take advantage of differences between U.S. and foreign currencies used to buy and sell international mail coupons. Ponzi told investors that he could provide a 40% return in just 90 days compared with 5% for bank savings accounts. Ponzi was deluged with funds from investors, taking in $1 million during one three-hour period—and this was 1921! Though a few early investors were paid off to make the scheme look legitimate, an investigation found that Ponzi had only purchased about $30 worth of the international mail coupons.

Decades later, the Ponzi scheme continues to work on the “rob-Peter-to-pay-Paul” principle, as money from new investors is used to pay off earlier investors until the whole scheme collapses. For more information, please read pyramid schemes in our Fast Answers databank.

http://www.sec.gov/answers/ponzi.htm

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22 LAWS OF MARKETING (Seri 4-Tamat)


By Al Ries & Jack Trout

  • THE LAW OF UNPREDICTABILITY: “Unless you write your competitors’ plan, you can’t predict the future.”
  • THE LAW OF SUCCESS: “Success often leads to arrogance, and arrogance to failure.”
  • THE LAW OF FAILURE: “failure is to be expected and accepted.”
  • THE LAW OF HYPE: “The situation is often the opposite of the way it appears in the press.”
  • THE LAW OF ACCELERATION: “Successful programs are not built on fads, their built on trends.”
  • THE LAW OF RESOURCES: “Without adequate funding, an idea won’t get off the ground.”

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22 LAWS OF MARKETING (Seri 3)


By Al Ries & Jack Trout

  • THE LAW OF PERSPECETIVE: “Marketing effects take place over an extended period of time.”
  • THE LAW OF LINE EXTENSION: “There is an irresistible pressure to extend the equity of the brand.”
  • THE LAW OF SACRIFICE: “You have to give up something in order to get something.”
  • THE LAW OF ATTRIBUTES: “For every attribute, there is an opposite effective attribute.”
  • THE LAW OF CANDOR: “When you admit a negative, the prospect will give you a positive.”
  • THE LAW OF SINGULARITY: “In each situation, only one move will produce substantial results.”

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22 LAWS OF MARKETING (Seri 2)


By Al Ries & Jack Trout

  • THE LAW OF EXCULSIVITY: “Two companies cannot own the same word in the prospect’s mind.”
  • THE LAW OF THE LADDER: “The strategy to use depends on which rung of the ladder you occupy.”
  • THE LAW OF DUALITY: “In the long run, every market becomes a two-brand race.”
  • THE LAW OF THE OPPOSITE: “If you’re shooting for second place, your strategy is determined by the leader.”
  • THE LAW OF DIVISION: “Over time, a category will divide and become two or more categories.”

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22 LAWS OF MARKETING (Seri 1)


By Al Ries & Jack Trout

  • THE LAW OF LEADERSHIP: “It’s better to be first than it is to be better.”
  • THE LAW OF THE CATEGORY: “If you can’t be first in a category, set up a new category you can be first in.”
  • THE LAW OF THE MIND: “It’s better to be first in the mind than to be first in the marketplace.”
  • THE LAW OF PERCEPTION: “Marketing is not a battle of products, it’s a battle of perceptions.”
  • THE LAW OF FOCUS: “The most powerful concept in marketing is owning a word in the prospect’s mind.”

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The 22 Immutable Law of Branding (Seri 4-Tamat)


By Al Ries and Laura Ries

  • The law of borders – There are no barriers to global branding. A brand should know no boundaries.
  • The law of consistency – A brand is not built overnight. Success is measured in decades, not years.  A change of agencies usually signals the end of a brands consistency. Rome wasn’t built in a day.
  • The law of change – Brands can be changed, but only infrequently and only very carefully.
  • The law of mortality – No brand will live forever. Euthanasia is often the best solution.
  • The law of singularity – The most important aspect of a brand is its single-mindedness.  A singular idea or concept that you own inside the mind of the consumer. It’s as simple and as difficult as that.

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