22 LAWS OF MARKETING (Seri 2)


By Al Ries & Jack Trout

  • THE LAW OF EXCULSIVITY: “Two companies cannot own the same word in the prospect’s mind.”
  • THE LAW OF THE LADDER: “The strategy to use depends on which rung of the ladder you occupy.”
  • THE LAW OF DUALITY: “In the long run, every market becomes a two-brand race.”
  • THE LAW OF THE OPPOSITE: “If you’re shooting for second place, your strategy is determined by the leader.”
  • THE LAW OF DIVISION: “Over time, a category will divide and become two or more categories.”
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